Rivista: Annali dell’Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Accettato, 2022 Jul-Sep;58(3):177-182. doi: 10.4415/ANN_22_03_06.

Titolo: Self-Awareness Multilevel Assessment Scale (SAMAS): Psychometric Analysis of Inter-Rater Reliability.

Autori: Bivona U, Ferri G, De Luca M, Lucatello S, Aloisi M, Contrada M, Ciurli P, Bandiera V, Lo Sterzo P, Lombardi G, Formisano R, Costa A.

Abstract: Background: Severe acquired brain injury (sABI) frequently causes impairment in self-awareness (ISA), leading to reduced patients’ compliance to treatment, worse functional outcome, and high caregiver distress. Self-awareness (SA) is a multilevel and complex function that, as such, requires a specific and effective assessment. To date, many tools are available to evaluate the declarative, but not emergent and anticipatory levels of awareness, therefore the Self-Awareness Multilevel Assessment Scale (SAMAS) was recently proposed. The new tool proved to be useful to assess SA at different levels across all domains of functioning (motor, cognitive, psycho-behavioural, etc.) because it measures not only the declarative SA, but also emergent and anticipatory levels of SA, thus overcoming some important limits of other current assessment methods. Aim: This study evaluated the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of the SAMAS. Methods: Four professionals blind to each other evaluated 12 patients with sABI. Each patient was rated by two professionals. Results: Inter-rater reliability was moderate-to-excellent, adding evidence in support of the use of SAMAS to specifically diagnose ISA after sABI. Conclusions: The SAMAS can help to better address neurorehabilitation, as it allows assessing ISA as early as possible, at all possible levels of awareness and functional domains.